Hitherto Unknown Secrets !

Brahma Mimamsa Shastra !

Bramha sutras Are known as Bramha Mimamsa Shastra . Lord NARAYANA as Vedavyasa himself has composed BRAMHA SUTRAS . WHY?

Vedas are infinite ! what does it mean vedas are infinite ?

a contemplation on the issue will bring to light certain mind-boggling tenets … what are they …?

To delve deeply we must understand what are vedas ? they are group of naturally ordered sequence of aksharas . what are aksharas ? kshara is perishable commodity … akshara is imperishable commodity ! so its existence in universe is TRUTH .. as it is imperishable it exists naturally and is indestructible … so it is visible too .. one who sees this is known as RISHI …

Now a rishi is someone who has realised this imperishable sequence of aksharas and has visualised it and is able to recite it at will [as he sees it regularly he can read it too in space …. so a readily accessible concept for him ] …

Now every person be it RISHI or otherwise has a limitation and hence cannot be knowing entire Infinite VEDAS or might have realised entire infinite Vedas …

but according to the sadhana carried over by rishis each might be knowing a specialised VEDA thus may be unique in his exposition of knowledge .. Each Rishi is exponent of specific unique mysterious knowledge …

In KRUTAYUGA the path showed by VEDAS was still non wavering and uniform all through the UNIVERSE …that means each exalted soul was engaged in his own pursuit of excellence and meeting such people always resulted in new exposition of new concept .. World was Ideal …

In treta the wavering of path of VEDAS occurred due to downfall of one leg of DHARMA ..and in Dwapara yuga it experienced a jolt .. by the end of DWAPARA yuga it extinguished completely … People say it was chiefly due to the curse of sage GAUTAM //

What happened due to the curse ? Failure to recollect verses was experienced …

SO vedas as it was present in the form of lineages of various rishis in various parts of the world ..suffered a discontinuity …and vedas as it was distributed and separated in various places in the form of few enlightened souls .. stood the risk of annihilation …

Here at this point LORD VEDAVYASA manifested himself making the SATYATI and PARASHAR episode as excuse [nimitta ] … and reestablished vedic way of life by dividing VEDAS into four 10 25 100 1000 parts and distributed them among the rishis and munis and to practise ….

Yet when these were practised .. rishis and munis and learned scholars could not understand the meaning of Vedas [ as in limited distributed learning  ] .. SO in order to make people understand the meaning of vedas ,rather to enumerate  the pointers to understanding of Vedas LOrd VEDAVYASA wrote BRAMHA SUTRAS ..

In the first part of Kaliyuga for few thousand years in NAIMISHARANYA sages propagated them in strict adherence to Sutras … slowly as kaliyuga progressed intellect of human decreased with increase in sins .. and slowly the disappearance of sages made it further difficult for common learned people to decipher the meaning of the SUTRAS ..

Upon that in came onslaught of various different paths of avedic culture which gained strength … In the mixup of various philosophies … People came up with various interpretations of SUTRAS to suit their own philosophy … and within no time 21 various interpretations of SUTRAS were in vogue making it very difficult for scholars to decipher the real meaning of VEDAS ..

At this point of time ACHARYA MADHVA gave his BHASHYA commentary to the SUTRAS .. the earlier commentaries 21 in number were not acceptable to the original SUTARKAAR Shri VEDAVYASA as it did not reflect even remotely the intent of the LORD ..the 22nd  commentary by SRIMADANANDA teertha not only reflected the original intent of LORD but also simplified it for the scholars to come .

ACHARYA  has incidentally written four granthas as vyakhyana for the BRAMHASUTRA .. 1.BRASUTRA BHASHYA 2.BRAMHASUTRAANUVYAKHYANA  3. BRAMHASUTRA NYAYAVIVARANA  4 BRAMHASUTRA  ANUBHASHYA

In an elaborate and precise manner SUTRA BHASHYA has been written and then again ANUVYAKHYANA  to crush the apavyakhyana of the SUTRAS to help the sajjanas … However to understand the logic employed in these granthas to uphold the real meaning of VEDAS .. it required a mammoth skill and hence to help such exercise and ease them ACHARYA collected various logics and inferences and pramanas in another exposition namely NYAYAVIVARANA ..

To concisely bring them to memory of the sadhaka he composed a small reference text known as ANUBHASHYA .. this is only for the namesake ANUBHASHYA but actually is a  magnum opus of ACHARYA exhibiting his infinite skill in comprising the meanings of many a sutras in one single word .. each sutra nd set of sutras have been just explained in a word in ANUBHASHYA .. to understand them succeeding ACHARYAS like JAYATEERTHA and RAGHAVENDRA swamiji have written many books .. one among them being TATVA MANJARI of RAGHAVENDRA SWAMY  only through which we understand the beauty and unfathomable knowledge of ACHARYA MADHVA in representing various concepts in single word .. just like KRISHNA SHOWED the whole creation to his mother yashoda in his small mouth .. so also ACHARYA compressed the entire infinite VEDIC knowledge into concise ANUBHASHYA …easy for parayana ..

BRAMHA Sutra has 564 sutras grouped into 223 adhikaranas each propounding a certain aspect of VEDA ,..

Some adhikarana have only one Sutra and some have two or three or more …

these adhikarnas are divided into Four ADHYAYAS and each Adhyaya is further divided into four padas .In all making 16 padas ..

In the first pada of the first Chapter .. which is known as SAMANVAYA adhyaya .. a samanvaya has been made with respect to all words occurring in nature as representing LORD .. ie it has been made samanvaya that all words convey only GOD … and he is PARIPOORNA …

There will be eight types of words that would require samanvaya

  1. the words which are different from those that represent GOD and convey names [namatmak ]
  2. the words which are expressions of form gender  etc and in reference in world generally not representing GOD [ lingatamak]
  3. words those are nounal and are used in reference to GOD as well as others simultaneously
  4. words that are ref to form , gender etc lingatmak but simultaneously used for both GOD and others
  5. namatmak words different from above four types
  6. lingatmak words different from above four types
  7. namatmak words representing only GOD
  8. lingatmak words representing only GOD
  • the first pada of first chapter deals with point 1
  • the second pada deals with point 2 ie type 2
  • the third pada deals with type 3 and 4
  • the fourth deals with type 5 and 6

as 7 and 8 types do not require any samanvaya they are not covered ..

In ADHYAYA 2  .. there is khandana [ refutation ] of the argument that there is contradiction in VEDAS as regards to SUPREMACY of LORD with respect to time .,inference ,and sentences in VEDAS are contradictory …

this is known as AVIRODHADHYAYA as it shows there is no difference in the vedic verses as per the meaning they convey .. all the verses convey SUPREMACY of LORD and do not contradict ..with respect to creation of universe  and auspiciousness of  LORD

  • in the first pada of this adhyaya is shown avirodha with respect to yukti
  • in the second pada avirodha wrt time [darshan ] is established
  • in the third pada the diferrences in SHRUTI vakyas seemingly contradictory have been reconciled
  • in the fourth pada nyayopet yuktisahit shruti avirodha has been established

 the Third ADHYAYA is known as sadhanaadhyaya ..

In the first adhyaya Lord is established as SUPREME .. in the second any objection raised by various thought processes have been refuted .. so a scholar reading these two chapters is confirmed with the knowledge of VISHNU SARVOTTAMATVA .. then what next ?

SO different sadhana are enumerated to facilitate BRAMHA JIGNYASA in the third adhyaya ..

  • in the first pada VAIRAGYA has been explained
  • in the second pada the most instrumental in VAIRAGYA  is BHAKTI is enumerated
  • the subject matter of third pada is UPASANA which gives rise to BHAKTI
  • the subject matter of fourth pada is APAROKSHA

the fourth ADHYAYA then elaborates once vairagya dawns with bhakti owing to upasana leading to APAROKSHA then what is the use of all this ? It explains the fruits of such exercise and is known as PHALADHYAYA

Bramhagyana when dawns it results into MOKSHA and its swaroopa is explained and path leading to it after aparoksha  is also explained ..

  • The first pada explains the result of  KARMANAASH
  • the second deals with deha laya of those who have achieved KARMAKSHAYA  owing to gyana and BHOGA
  • the third deals with place and path reached by  the souls who leave through BRAMHANAADI or other naadi known as UTKRAMANA
  • The fourth deals with achieving the  PARABRAMHA through chaturmukha BRAMHA and BHOGA or enjoyments of MUKTA JEEVA …

In this way starting with ATHATO BRAMHA JIGNYASA … Bramha sutras  instruct the  scholars to inquire about the SUPREME as a vidhi and kartavya through its four adhyayas … and with SHRAVNA MANANA AND NIDHIDHYASANA forms of sadhana and acquiring SHAMA DAMA etc wealth adhikaari  should aspire for MOKSHA which is result of BRAMHA JIGNYASA and it is a compulsory duty “avashya ” through steady meditation of BRAMHA Sutras BHASHYA and VYAKHYANA is the clear proclamation of BRAMHA MIMAMSA SHASTRA ..

krishnarpanamastu

 

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  1. Introduction to Maadhwa Philosophy

    (Translation of the original speech in Kannada by renowned scholar of Uttaradi Math Sri Vidyasimhacharya Mahuli)

    (Translated by R.T.Gutti)

    The greatest Hindu contribution to the world is its philosophy. Deeply rooted in the Vedas, the philosophy addresses the very fundamental question-who am I? Or what am I?

    as also other questions such as the nature and purpose of human existence. It deals with each of these issues in depth. Ancient rishis and other scholars have, over the centuries, contributed to the enrichment of the Hindu philosophy.

    Rishis of the distant past realized the philosophical truths embodied in the Vedas after vigorous intellectual pursuits. These enlightened men integrated the philosophical truths with theology and concepts of duty and devised a way of life following which one could realize the truth. In the course of time, the way of life assimilated some of the views of even Jainism and Buddhism. The composite way of life has come to be known as the great Indian culture.

    The philosophy and its culmination- culture, reached its zenith during the Upanishadic period. In the subsequent centuries, however, it became corrupt and so did the culture. The three great Acharyas- Adi Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya and Madhwacharya revived it with their respective schools of thought-Adwaitaism, Vishishtadwaitaism and Dwaitaism. Although these great acharyas differed from one another on certain aspects of philosophy at the abstract level, the approach to life each one of them advocated-performan ce of one’s duty without expecting results, was the same and that brought about revival in the culture.

    Each school of thought produced men of extraordinary intelligence in the course of time, to carry forward the torch lit by its founder / propagator. Teekacharya, born in the Maadhwa tradition was the one, who, with his work Shriman Nyaya Sudha, took Maadhwa philosophy to far greater heights than could one imagine.

    To the majority of the Maadhwa community of to-day, however, Maadhwa philosophy has come to mean a bundle of rituals and nothing more, mainly due to the impact of Western thought and its culture which, because of its phenomenal advancement in science and technology and the resultant material progress has, of late, been found to be spreading at an alarming rate threatening to wipe out many great cultures of the world. The Westerner, on the other hand, has by and large found himself to be unhappy despite material opulence, the reason for which is that the West has predominantly pursued the question-what is matter? And not who am I? The Westerner’s focal point has been materialism and not spiritualism. The Western thinkers seem to be less inclined to address the spiritual angle to the human life.

    Not that there was a dearth of thinkers in the West. The history of Western philosophy dates back to the era before Christ. Ancient Greek philosophers viz; Socrates [470-399BC], Plato [427-347BC] and Aristotle [384-322BC] had thought of human life and the world from many angles. They were the pioneers among the Western philosophers, whose views have influenced the Western culture to a great extent; but, they do not appear to have addressed the question of “I”, although Socrates did say” know thyself”. However, there appears to be a lull on this front for two millennia.

    The next philosopher of prominence was Descartes, a product of Renaissance. Rene Descartes [1685-1763] was a French mathematician who gave some thought to the question-who am I? and came with his maxim-” cogito ergo sum- I think, therefore I am”. Others to follow Descartes were John Locke [1632-1704], George Berkeley [1685-1763], Immanuel Kant [1724-1804], Karl Marx [1818-1893] and T.H.Huxley [1825-1895]. There were others viz Spinoza, David Hume, Aldous Huxley, Bertrand Russell and Jean Paul Sartre, the renowned Existentialist.

    The Western philosophers do not appear to belong to a particular school of thought or certain schools of thought except George Berkeley and David Hume, who followed empiricism of John Locke. The West has given many philosophies like, empiricism, realism, idealism, transcendental idealism, skepticism, agnosticism, Marxism and existentialism but, these philosophies were propounded by thinkers, men of extraordinary intelligence, powerful imagination and vast knowledge, on the basis of personal observations and individual experiences and not on the basis of collective experiences. Therefore, it seems, they failed to appeal to the intelligent and common man alike to bring about a change in their outlook and came to be regarded as mere intellectual exercises without being spiritual in nature. Even Christianity appears to emphasize more on virtues like charity, morality and helping needy ones and less on the nature of the soul it calls spirit

    The Hindu philosophy, however, addresses the question of ‘I’ with all the sincerity, vigour and strength at its command and declares that it is a metaphysical entity; it is soul .One is aware of one’s existence only because of it. It is the soul that makes one conscious of one’s own continued existence. It is the strongest proof of one’s existence. The soul has no beginning, no end; it is eternal. The Hindu philosophy deals with soul’s journey through the physical and the metaphysical worlds, repeatedly undertaken to enjoy pleasures or to suffer pain and to undergo hardships, depending upon one’s own actions and to progress, until it attains liberation. It also gives vivid description of the other worlds and the inter-relationship between the physical and metaphysical worlds.

    The three main schools of thought, viz, Adwaitaism, Vishishtadwaitaism and Dwaitaism interpret soul in different ways. According to Adwaitism, it is Brahman,

    The Supreme Being, the one and the only truth that exists, i.e. the Ultimate Reality, but the soul is unaware of its true nature because of ignorance, which envelops it in the form of a veil. According to Vishishtadwaitaism, it is a separate entity, which on realization of its true nature attains a status equal to that of Brahman, the Supreme Being, retaining its separate identity. Dwaitaism says that soul is a separate entity and it retains its own identity, even after liberation .The soul has been subordinate to God from time immemorial and it will remain so, till eternity. Dwaitaism categorizes souls as satvika, rajasa and tamasa depending upon their intrinsic worth. A satvika soul’s nature is bliss. It derives happiness from good things in life. Therefore, it seeks happiness through righteousness. A rajasa soul’s nature is both bliss and pain. It derives happiness and pleasures from both good and bad things. Therefore, it seeks satisfaction through all means. A tamasa soul’s nature is only pain and it derives pleasure from undesirable things. It pursues unrighteous means to satisfy its desires.

    As regards the nature of the world, Adwaitaism says that the world does not exist in reality; it is an illusion .It further says that the world is of soul’s own making and to one it appears as real, or one experiences it as real, because of ignorance. Vishishtadwaitaism says that the world is real and Dwaitaism concurs with it.

    As regard the purpose of the world, Shri Shankaracharya says, the world has no purpose. It does not really exist; it is “Maya”, he says. According to Shri Ramanujacharya, God creates the world and allows souls to take birth in the world to progress and attain liberation. Shri Madhwacharya upholds this view.

    On the question of the nature of “moksha”, both Shri Shankaracharya and Shri Ramanujacharya say that it is a permanent state of pure bliss. Shri Madhwacharya agrees with them, but only in respect of satvika souls. According to Shri Shankaracharya, Brahman’s nature is “shuddha ananda”; pure bliss. The soul, on realization of its true nature of being Brahman Himself, experiences pure bliss forever, he says. Shri Ramanujacharya says that the soul, on realization of its true nature, attains the status of Brahman and experiences pure bliss of Brahman, permanently thereafter. Shri Madhwacharya says that a satvika soul, on its liberation, experiences pure bliss, forever, but it experiences its own bliss, he says. The intrinsic nature of a satvika soul is bliss and it is also pure in the sense that it is not born of anything else, but of its own self. He says, Omnipresent and Omnipotent Brahman, allows the soul, from within, to experience its own bliss. The bliss the soul experiences is, however, far inferior compared to the pure bliss of Brahman. Brahman is Lord Vishnu Himself, Who, liberates the realized souls and allows the liberated souls to experience their own pure bliss in Vaikuntha, Lord Vishnu’s Abode, for eternity, he says. A rajasa soul, which adopts both fair and unfair means to satisfy its wants and consequently performs good and bad karma while on the physical plane, is rewarded with happiness and hardships, after liberation. God allows rajasa souls to experience both pleasure and pain in Santanika Loka. God awards a tamasa soul having followed unrighteous path to satisfy its desires and having performed evil actions therefore while living in the world. On liberation, the tamasa soul is sent to Andha Tamas to suffer, forever.

    Shri Shankaracharya calls realization of self as Atmajnyana. The soul, atman, when it removes the veil of ignorance that covers it, he says, it realizes its own nature that it is Brahman Himself. Shri Ramanujacharya says that the soul realizes its true nature. Shri Madhwacharya calls it ‘aparoksha jnyana’, when, he says, soul actually sees the Lord within; residing within soul, as antaratman. The word antaratman means one, who is within atman. Obviously, he is Omnipresent God. Elaborating it further, he says that each soul has its own form and Omnipresent God, Who dwells within, also has the same form. Bound as He is to fulfil all desires of soul, God within the soul, behaves according to its desires. Remaining totally detached, God from within, causes the soul to emulate His action and the soul, being totally subordinate to God, as it has always been, very faithfully emulates Him. The soul does not do anything on its own, but emulates its Master within, in to- to, like reflection in mirror. Therefore, God within is called bimba and the soul, prati-bimba- -His reflection. At the moment of realization, the satvika soul, prati- bimba actually sees bimba. Shri Madhwacharya, therefore, calls it bimba-darshana or sakshatkara. All acharyas say that true knowledge of, and total devotion only to God –shuddha jnyana and ananya bhakti, lead one to self realization, but, Shri Madhwacarya says, self realization is at God’s discretion; although one has necessary pre-requisites. God reveals Himself to one, when He wishes, he says. For the acquirement of jnyana and development of bhakti, all the acharyas advocate nishkama karma, with one voice.

    In his work Shriman Nyaya Sudha, which is a commentary on the Brahma Sutras, Shri Teekacharya has dealt with every school of thought; Vedic and non Vedic and individual philosophies and has explained all aspects of philosophy from a rational angle.

    Shri Teekacharya elaborates the views of Shri Madhwacharya on “I” and says that it is soul, a metaphysical entity and a consciousness, immortal like Brahman, but unlike Brahman, Who is independent, is dependent on Brahman for every thing, including its existence. Omnipresent Brahman has always been within soul. Shri Madhwacharya calls Him Sakshi. Brahman is called Aham meaning, one, who can never be given up. He is always present and never changes. It is Sakshi, Who being within makes the soul aware of its existence. Therefore, one says that one exists. One is also aware of one’s not having changed, despite the passage of time of any length. Sakshi makes the soul aware of every thing it experiences. It is neither body nor mind, for one has an experience of sound

    Sleep, when both body and mind are at complete rest. It is Sakshi, Who makes the soul aware of the sound sleep one experiences, he says.

    Commenting on the interpretation of individual soul being Brahman, Shri Madhwacharya says that all 564 Brahma Sutras point out to Brahman and soul being different from one another. Even Shri Shankaracharya says that only 3 Brahma Sutras pint out to both being one and the same. Shri Madhwacharya says that the word Brahman is derived from the word ‘brihat’, meaning vast, limitless. In other words, Brahman refers essentially to one, who is vast or limitless in terms of qualities, knowledge, power and spiritual riches. He is independent. A soul on the other hand, has limitations on every count. Also it is not independent but depends on God for every thing, including its own existence. He also says that each soul is not only different from Brahman, but it is also different from other souls, which, he says, are infinite in number.

    Elaborating the Brahma Sutras, Shri Teekacharya says that only 3 of the Sutras that point out to both Brahman and soul being one and the same cannot be construed as valid proof in the context of as large a number as 561 sutras, which point out just the opposite. He says one is aware of one’s own limitations. He knows that he cannot be compared to others in respect of certain qualities, let alone Brahman, with His infinite qualities. In the heart of his heart, every one “knows” that he is not independent, Shri Teekacharya says. Every one knows that he is different from others. The difference amongst humans transcends space and time, he says.

    On the nature of the world, Shri Madhwacharya says that it real. It is not “Maya” or illusion. Elucidating it, Shri Teekacharya says that Brahman, who is real, does not, like a magician, create illusion, but creates the world, which is real. Quoting scriptures that furnish detailed accounts of the creation process, he asks, why would scriptures give such elaborate accounts of creation of the world, if it were indeed an illusion? Besides, every one experiences the reality of the world, then why a supposition that the world is unreal, he asks? If it was indeed unreal; of one’s own making, it should have existed exclusively for oneself, where as the world is found to exist for every one to experience and which is a universally accepted fact.

    On the question of the purpose of the world, Shri Teekacharya says that Brahman, Who is anandamaya, has nothing to gain from the world. He creates it as a means for souls to fulfil their various desires, to progress and to attain liberation, according to their intrinsic worth.

    Shri Teekacharya discusses the views of different schools of thought on moksha. Moksha, no doubt, is eternal bliss for a satvika soul, but it is also release of the soul from the cycle of birth and death, which is regarded as pain. The release precedes eternal bliss or moksha. According to Adwaitaism, one experiences bliss, when one realizes the true nature of his soul being none other than Brahman Himself, during the state of samadhi. On return to the normal physical level, however, the laws of the physical world bind one and one suffers pain and limitations thereof. He might, thereafter, adopt a different approach to life, which might reduce the intensity of pain and limitations, but they do remain to continue to affect him. Thus one’s experience of bliss is temporary and not permanent. The lasting experience of bliss, it might be said, is God’s indication of what soul has in its store, after its liberation. As to what it actually is, will be dealt with in the paragraph to follow. Vishishtadwaitins say that it is the bliss of Brahman a soul, a separate entity, experiences permanently, on soul’s attaining the status of Brahman. Figuratively it is like an emperor allowing one of his servants to share the throne of his and to allow him to enjoy imperial privileges. According to Buddhism, moksha is non-existence of soul or self-destruction, in other words. If that is so, no one would seek non-existential liberation, he says. Besides, soul is also called aham meaning one, who can never be given up, which, in other words, means that soul is indestructible. How the indestructible gets destroyed, he asks? Jainism says that soul, after its liberation, experiences eternal bliss, on an ever-elevating platform or place called Dharma Shila.

    Atheists like Charvak regarded moksha as a Utopian concept, the one that exists only in one’s imagination. They advocate enjoyment of worldly pleasures. Enjoyment is an experience agreeable to oneself. One yearns for it all the time, but being short lived in nature, it fails to satisfy one for long. Atheists do not consider “I” as something other than body, nor do they believe in God. They say nature is supreme. Therefore, they do not believe in the super natural. There are others, who do not accept the views of organised schools of thought. They say no knowledge is valid and interpret life, as they perceive it. Such philosophies do not stand the test of logical reasoning. They are, at best, regarded as intellectual exercises. This phenomenon can be explained, as the world being the same, looks different to different people.

    Moksha, for a satvika soul, is a state of sorrowlessness and bliss, wherein a soul experiences its own bliss, nothing but bliss, for eternity, after its liberation from the cycle of birth and death. And it is at Vaikuntha, the abode of Lord Vishnu, where souls experience this kind of bliss, says ShriTeekacharya. Elaborating it further, he says that sorrowlessness is assured at Vaikuntha, but the bliss each liberated soul experiences, depends on the intrinsic worth and the progress made by the soul on the physical plane for, moksha is a reward by God and impartial God rewards a soul, allowing it to experience its bliss in proportion to the soul’s progress. Similarly, rajasa and tamasa souls are awarded bliss and pain and only pain in Santanika Loka and Andha Tamas respectively, according to their own karma

    .

    ShriTeekacharya discusses the issue of realization. According to Adwaitaism, man, at the highest stage of evolution, is God Himself and he realizes that in the state of samadhi, with the removal of ignorance that conceals the soul’s true nature from time immemorial, which amounts to the acceptance of existence of ignorance as reality, along with God or of accepting ignorance as one of God’s characteristics, with which He conceals one of His parts, soul. The former cannot be true because, according to them, there is only one reality or truth-Brahman and all the rest is untrue and the latter amounts to God being endowed with ignorance, which also cannot be true for, God is omniscient. Emphasizing Shri Madhwacharya’ s contention that jnyana and bhakti only qualify one for aparoksha jnyana, Shri Teekacharya says that knowledge has to transform itself into devotion. Only knowledge does not entitle one to the realization. He says, a person, who has studied scriptures can, at the most, be called a great scholar and not an enlightened one. A man with jnyana and total devotion only to God is entitled to aparoksha jnyana, which God blesses, when He wishes.

    Realization is aparoksha jnyana or sakshatkara, when one, in the state of samadhi, actually sees God within-bimba, in the form of his own self. Realization is generally described as an experience one has, in the state of samadhi, when one transcends mind and sees a bright but extremely soothing golden light within and experiences perfect tranquility. One is reported to be so ecstatic at the sight of divinity within, that one is said to forget every thing, including one’s own self.

    Realization does not lead one to moksha immediately. A realized person may be required to live long, many lives, in the world, before he is released from the cycle of birth and death because, as Lord Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita, a jnyani attains Me, after a number of lives [bahoonam janmanam ante jnyanwan mam prapadyate]. Shri Madhwacharya says that aparoksha jnyana destroys one’s sanchita karma, but one is required to live in the world to experience the fruits of one’s prarabdha karma. It might take many lives for one to exhaust one’s prarabdha karma. Shri Madhwacharya even explains the post- realization life of the soul, its final journey from the mundane world and its transitory stay in metaphysical world, before it reaches its final destination, Vaikuntha.

    Shri Madhwacharya has propagated his philosophy of dualism on the basis of the Brahma Sutras and in his work Shriman Nyaya Sudha, Shri Teekacharya has elaborated it to such an extent that it covers the entire gamut of Hindu philosophy. Shri Teekacharya has discussed various schools of thought and individual philosophies from various angles and has proved dualism from a rational angle i.e., on the basis of scriptures, logical reasoning and human experiences.

    Walking in the footsteps of Shri Madhwacharya, Shri Teekacharya advises one to perform one’s duty with out expecting rewards. That would earn one merit; merit would help one acquire jnyana; jnyana would lead to bhakti; bhakti to God’s grace and God’s grace to aparoksha jnyana. And aparoksha jnyana to God’s highest reward, moksha

    .

    The Maadhwa philosophy is not a bundle of rituals. It is a well thought of system, which when put into practice, with faith, would place one on the righteous path, where performance of each ritual, like sandhyavandana, would accelerate the pace of one’s spiritual progress towards the final goal. It will also help one develop inner strength to face the world bravely. Inner strength is the need of the hour to help us retain our cultural identity in the face of Western consumerism that is sweeping the world.

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    • Viju Rao said:

      Dear Sir,
      most flawless introduction to madhava philosophy.
      sri vidyasimhacharge dasoham.
      and thanks a ton for the posting.

      sri krishnarpana.

      Like

    • What to say on this….pleasure to read this..great post Sir.

      Like

    • poojaneeyamaina gurugariki,

      heart filling content on SRI MADHWACHARYA’S philosophy… simply no words… awesome sir..please if possible some more like these… please…

      Like

    • Dear Chiraan Ji,

      Thank you for this excellent post.

      //Bound as He is to fulfil all desires of soul, God within the soul, behaves according to its desires. Remaining totally detached, God from within, causes the soul to emulate His action and the soul, being totally subordinate to God, as it has always been, very faithfully emulates Him.//

      The first line says God acts as per soul’s desire. Second line says Soul acts as per God’s desire. Can you please clear my understanding.

      //It might take many lives for one to exhaust one’s prarabdha karma.//

      prarabdha is karma destined for current birth. Why it takes many lives to exhaust prarabdha karma?

      Where does Vaikunta, Santanika and Andhatamas comes in the 14 lokas?

      Taking sattvik soul as exmaple – If God within ones soul acts as per intrinsic nature of soul then why would a sattvik soul do tamasic act in first place and then be influenced by Kali to do tamasic act in future birth ( as per prarabdha karma)?

      Thanks.

      Like

      • first of all your questions are very beautiful …. one must put good questions … good questions raise good discussions ..

        actions of god are manifold ..
        he has given freedom to desire for a soul ..
        and he takes many rupas to carry out souls’ desire .. these rupas are exclusive to jeeva and come what may they carry out desires of soul … so god acts as per souls’ desires is true ..

        now God has many other rupas too ..one such rupa is in karma .. which makes karma binding on soul .. the work carried by this rupa cotradicts the desires of soul .. yet it reigns ..so finally soul acts as per desires of God this is also true ..

        suppose one does one half day fast .. he gets punya to stay in bramhaloka for 1000 years .. hs punya is too heavy … 1 day in bramhaloka is equivalent to many yugas on earth ..
        when 1/3 of this punya remains .. he comes to earth for birth .. so technically his prarabdha of half day fast when it acts .. needs many births through yugas to exhaust …
        14 lokas are perishable // mukta lokas are permanent …

        banana i sweet and soft from inside [ intrinsic nature ] yet the skin over it is hard and bitter .
        if one tries to eat along with skin [ acts of soul in sansaara ] its sweet and bitter .. only when ski peels off only sweetness remains ..
        one needs hard cut to remove skin …

        Like

      • Dear Chiraan Ji – Thank you for your guidance and clearing my doubts.

        Like

    • Namaskar Acharya

      Many very deep concepts are introduced and very lucidly explained.

      But I was wondering is it okay to feel a sense of disregard towards Non Madhva philosophies, for instance in above article Sri Sankaracharya (Manimatha) and Sri Ramanujacharya have been addressed as great scholars. further Tatvavaada has been introduced as a refinement over Advaita and Vishsithadvaita where as on the contrary Tatavavaada is the original and rest all just create delusion.

      Further Acharya for obstinate people like me a more stronger dose is required where in Vayu tatva needs to be emphasized and Hari sarvottamma is paramount.

      Sorry for a critical tone acharya but for me I feel the most basic principles should be bombarded on the mind relentlessly to make them seep in!! I feel your approach (earlier I felt a bit radical but now am very comfortable with) towards explaining these concepts helped me a lot!! May be its a ex demon thing !!

      Sincere Pranaams
      Hare Srinivasa

      Like

      • Viju Rao said:

        @Keshav,
        first of all i applaud u for being so frank……….
        ‘But I was wondering is it okay to feel a sense of disregard towards Non Madhva philosophies’……..
        r u asking? its not only okay but its compulsory..ur right here no need to hesitate. u can’t compare many a scholars with our acharya. scholars speak with knowledge our acharya speaks with conviction and commitment. spreading knowledge is comparatively easier than inculcating a sense of conviction in masses. our beloved acharya is doing the latter these scholars r doing the former.

        to think like acharya we must first realise that this world is a battlefield…..and every sadhaka must fight to survive. actually sadhana itself is a fight…… first we need to conquer our inner demons to safeguard ourselves from outer ones. many madhava scholars just like all others deny this fact either due to timidity or lack of conviction in madhava mata…………in horrible cases both.

        many scholars are not initiated into this boxing ring yet……for lucky ones like us(students of acharya)now we are training with pads and gloves coz we stiil fear/think of others emotions sometimes…..which is actually like giving space to negative emotions but has raised its ugly head as tolerance, unfortunately. our acharya is like a bare knuckle fighter who says’ come what may i’ll speak the truth only’. if u r a fan of action then u’ll know that bare knuckle fights are termed illegal. thus only a few appreciate honesty and daring……..and majority fall for the fancy(NS attitude)…….this is the grim reality. it is exactly to get past of this attitude we need the grace of MUKHYA PRANA. acharya pls forgive my mistakes.

        sri krishnarpana.

        regards,
        Viju Rao.

        Like

      • Dear Keshav,

        To accept anything, one must go by pramanas and taratamya. This teaching is there in Garuda Puran.

        Now if we have to accept any philosopy, there should be a backing from the higher authority and disciplinic succession of acharyas from a realized soul or a soul higher in taratamya. Here we have sriman madhavacharya, the vayu avatara himself proclaiming Hari Sarvottama.

        Shri Veda Vyasa himself, explaining taratamya in Garuda Purana Chapter 3. So, where does it leave any scope of learning from ignorant souls with the superficial layer of silver. ? Anything that contradicts Satvik Puranas like Garuda and Bhagvat is ASAT.

        So, if we look at Sankaracharya there is clear verse in Garuda Purana mentioning that he is incarnation of manimantha. Right after the verse it is also mentioned that Shri Madhavacharya the Vayu avatara will take birth and cleanse this mess. When Veda Vyasa the Lord himself proclaims this, where is the need to listen to Ramanuja or Sankara..

        All this in the chapters 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19.

        Satshastra is always in sync with the Lord’s teachings. Do we find other scholars(so called) in sync with Ved Vyasa ? NO. They proclaim equality. Whereas Taratamya is very clear in GP. So, who is in sync with Satshastra.. ? It is Shri Madhavacharya. So, his teachings have to be taken as highest. Once this thing gets in the head, rest will look like a deceit to you. You will know, there is clear ball tampering OR Vaseline application on the ball to get over the barrier of 100 mph.

        Only Satshastra is as proclaimed by Shri Madhavacharya and discplinic succession of the Acharyas in his kula. The reason is clear and simple, they are Satshastras because they are teaching and propounding the philosophy in sync with guidelines of the Lord and not otherwise. Anything else is ASAT.

        Any mistakes are solely mine.

        Regards
        Kamal

        Like

      • Namaskar Viju ji and Kamal ji

        Thank you for the guidance and encouraging words. Cannot agree more sadhana is a bare knuckle fight where we tackle Kali and negative prarabdha. Also anything not in accordance with Sadshastras have to be discarded logic and pramana are irrefutable.

        Just one thing I was concerned about the author and translator are superior and better qualified so was not sure if it was advisable for beginners like me to raise queries of this nature.

        Pranams
        Hare Srinivasa.

        Like

      • Namaskar Acharya

        I guess beginners should just concentrate on getting as much satsang and updesh as possible especially from seniors from Madhva sampradaya to begin with and focus on self development. Rest all should be left on elders and seniors to decide and guide!! I guess I have been doing this since long and quiet habitual, kindly guide what can be done to avoid this for future and atone for past.

        The first appropriate step seems to be proceeding by saluting Sri Sri Vidyasimhacharya Mahuli and Sri RT Gutti anatrat Rayaru Vayu Hari and pray for forgiveness.

        By proceeding in this way it whole article seems to be very different from what it appeared before with many wonderful concepts and teachings.

        Sincere Pranaams
        Hare Srinivasa.

        Like

      • Dear Keshav,

        Keep inquiring till you get convinced. Look for details. Ask for PRamanas. At every step when the inquisitiveness gets fulfilled with right information from this blog, that will bring a solid base of understanding of madhava philosophy.

        We all went through this phase, so nothing to worry. Even if you go out of line at any point of time, the learned people here will bring you back. Look at Viju’s post. Leaves nothing for imagination. You will get crisp replies. Leave yourself to their able hands. To start with just be the JIGNYASU i would say.

        Needless to say during this jignyasa phase do pray Hari-Vayu-Rayaru to give you direction. You will not be disappointed, irrespective of what you have been in the past….

        Regards
        Kamal

        Like

      • Viju Rao said:

        @keshav,
        my comment was not out of personal hatred or contempt for anyone but against the herd mentality(of being too soft) which has become a norm today. i was not accusing the scholars but trying to highlight few points where improvement can be useful.
        for example the topics like caste system, of deities who shouldn’t be prayed etc. are always skipped in discourses. they do elaborate on what madhavas should do but rarely on what NOT to do and why………the points…… . what a madhava should be proud of? or why other matas must not be followed etc. are rarely addressed. this trend should change else the only reason for our adherence to madhava mata will be of being born in such sampradaya…………this should not happen.
        i request acharya to correct me if i’m wrong.

        sri krishnarpana.

        Like

      • Namaskar Kamal ji Viju ji

        Thank you for the reply. Viju ji I was just referring to my 2nd post about the behavior of beginner. I was not sure whether to proceed or not as I often get this type of doubts. I hope with Hari Vayu Rayaru’s grace I get more refined and more conducive for sadhana.

        Pranaams
        Hare Srinivasa.

        Like

    • Great article Guruvaryaa, it’s a wonderful read.

      Guruvaryaa we sometimes see that people who do not seem to be interested in spirituality become bhaktas with time and life experiences…. does that mean their intrinsic nature of the soul has changed? or it is showing it’s true colours later? Does a soul change it’s nature at all?

      Humble pranams

      Like

    • Namaskar GURUDEV,

      I have a list of questions……

      1.How soul is metaphysical entity ?whats its composition in actual…?please explain.

      2.’The soul has no beginning, no end; it is eternal. The Hindu philosophy deals
      with soul’s journey through the physical and the metaphysical worlds, repeatedly undertaken t
      o enjoy pleasures or to suffer pain and to undergo hardships, depending upon one’s own actions and to progress, until it attains liberation. It also gives vivid description of the other worlds and the inter-relationship between the physical and metaphysical worlds.’

      Sir, if soul has no beginning ,no end (after moksha even ,soul’s identity remains same.)..and according to Shri Madhavacharya who upholds the statement that’ GOD has created world and souls takes birth’..but when souls takes birth first time,it must be having no sanchit karmas…so no prarabdha should be there..so in what condition soul rests before first birth.?..no prarabdh, no birth and death..is it means soul rests in some ‘equivalent to Moksha’ state before frist birth also?? If yes on which bases it takes first birth?

      3.’The three main schools of thought, viz, Adwaitaism, Vishishtadwaitaism and Dwaitaism interpret soul in different ways. According to Adwaitism, it is Brahman.’

      Sir, ‘Schools of thoughts’ can be many for any subject/topic…but the truth can not be 10…20…50..or more regarding a single statement in one particular direction for an issue..it canbe/should be only one.So which one should be followed by anyone is his or her choice/understanding??Quite not right …! Truth can not be varied with peoples choices..
      As kamal ji have said acc to SAT Shastra and showed how Madhav philosophy is believable..but yet why other 2 Acharyas slightly differs with madhav philosophy on every issue??…as truth can be one only…so why not one statement on every issue may be of self realisation/moksha/ world reality etc..?

      4.’God allows rajasa souls to experience both pleasure and pain in Santanika Loka. God awards a tamasa soul having followed unrighteous path to satisfy its desires and having performed evil actions therefore while living in the world. On liberation, the tamasa soul is sent to Andha Tamas to suffer, forever.’

      Sir, when rajasa soul and tamasa souls attains Santanika loka and AndhaTamas..??When means they also get self realisation and then moksha??How a rajasa and tamasa soul can be free from birth and death cycle?esp tamasa soul…who follow unrighteous path to get desired..How any tamsic soul can attain self realisaton??

      Also as it has been stated very clearly here that souls have 3 categories only – satvik.rajasa and tamasa.
      But even a satvik soul can behave once in while as tamasa also…?? As in one example of KARNA for MB you had said…when he abused to Draupadidevi he was tamasik KARNA and when listens to LORD he was satvik KARNA.So at the end how KARNA was..on intrinsic level..??Means satvik/rajasa/tamasa…any type of soul can behave like any other soul type also.once in while….but yet remains same at intrinsic level??If yes, then how long..??Soul type also get affected by long term opposite karmas?

      5.The soul does not do anything on its own, but emulates its Master within, in to- to, like
      reflection in mirror. Therefore, God within is called bimba and the soul, prati-bimba- -His
      reflection. At the moment of realization, the satvika soul, prati- bimba actually sees bimba.
      Shri Madhwacharya, therefore, calls it bimba-darshana or sakshatkara.

      Sir, In todays world any such soul/souls are available..who have attained aproksha jnyana??

      6.Shri Madhwacharya says that aparoksha jnyana destroys one’s sanchita karma.

      When there are no sanchit karma lefts after aproksha jnyana that means one has to exhaust only present janam’s prarabdha..and after that he is free from birth and death cycle and get eligible for moksha…So when one gets punya of 1000 yrs stay at brahma loka and when 1/3 punya lefts again takes birth…bcoz of anisht punya??

      Sir, they may seem mundane to you….but they are definitely a serious quiries for me…please answer..

      Thanks and regards,
      kalyani.

      Like

      • @Kalyani

        Didi please refer to Guruvar’s posts for your questions:

        question 2: about souls….

        https://chiraan.wordpress.com/2009/01/09/anadi-karma/

        Two more excellent posts by Guruvar showing difference between Dwaita and adwaita:

        https://chiraan.wordpress.com/2009/05/09/computer-science-vedanta-logic-tarka-shastra/

        https://chiraan.wordpress.com/2009/05/15/vedanta-in-computer-science/

        question 3: here Guruvar explains ‘why different philosophies?’

        https://chiraan.wordpress.com/2009/06/11/vada-vadi-partivadi-refutation-of-charvak/

        https://chiraan.wordpress.com/2009/06/12/pashandamatha-khandan-refutation-of-jain-philosophy/

        first part of question 4 : about tamasika souls

        https://chiraan.wordpress.com/2009/10/04/tatvavada-tenets-of-dvaita-philosophy/

        Question and answer quoted from Brahma Jignyasa——————————–

        Raghu said…
        Questions relating to Na Aham Kartha Hari Hi Kartha:

        1. If Shri Hari is making us do every thing in our life, how can one explain bad things that people do.
        2. If a soul is already predestined to be Tamasic or Rajasic, what is a person’s motivation to better himself. Are the doors of heaven permanently closed to non-satvic souls?

        November 25, 2008 4:11 AM
        chiraan said…
        Namskara Shri Raghu,
        Souls are reflections of the God. jeeva has gnyana anandmaya sharira (swaroop deha). Tamasic souls have swaroop deha of agnyana ,dukhamaya etc. rajasic have mixed (sukh dukha mishra deha)
        The charachteristics of soul are inherent , neither created nor destroyed, even God does not create them. If He Created then He will have dosha of Partiality (nairghrunya).God is full of good qualities only.
        Kali is the neechatineecha among souls. He has a quality of being present everywhere ,see everything.
        He is also under the control of Narayana and Mukhyaprana.
        For tamasic souls mere circumstantial push is enough to commit sin, their natural characteristic spring up. Hence God creates such atmosphere for them, ( eg. Budhha giving anti vedic sermon to demons).
        For rajasik souls , majority plays important they swing as per the situation, if world sings spirituality tine all these become spiritual, when world is taken over by monsters , these start sinning and siding with demons/antiGod
        Sattvic however errs by double motivation only, one from inside by (Daitya avesha) second by simultaneous external influence (sahavasa) [eg manthara to kaikeyi, karna-suyodhana].
        Thus all bad things in the world are primarily carried out by the Kali and his followers.
        Kali is under Narayana (he does not act independently but that is his dwesha sadhana).
        All good is carried out exclusivesly by Mukhya prana .
        To sin is to hate God , that leads to hell , Following Dharma and bhakti leads to Moksha , heaven and earth are for intermediaries.
        2. If tamasic and rajasic are predestined ,what is motivation for betterment?
        even God does not want them strive for betterment, because it is not their nature, they by nature seek unhappiness.
        However you nourish a neem tree with milk , does it bear sweet fruit?
        Can you expect a cool shade from a thorny weed ?
        it is only going to prick if you embrace it with love.
        Some guys are just confused (rajasik) and they rejoice confusion(udaseena).
        [Just interact with a businessman , when even in profit he says ( whats the use of profit there is no charm in business ) in a times of loss he says business mein nafa nukhsaan chalta hi rahta hai) He has a taint of happiness and unhappiness in both the situations. ]rajasik soul.

        ———————————Unquote from Brahma Jignyasa

        second part… I also have the same doubt…

        5th and 6th questions… Guruvar or other senior members can answer…

        Great questions didi… I also had the chance to refresh my memory while looking for answers!

        Humble pranams

        Like

      • Thankyou Usha for the help….I will try to find out my answers in these posts…
        Actually not getting much time to read now a days..due to hectic work schedule and other matters..
        But thanks anyways..!

        Like

  2. Acharya,
    naman,

    please excuse my inability to understand the complex meanings, i did not understand how Vedas are inifnite ? … are there more than 4 vedas ? or it is called inifinite because each rishi understands / realises a small part of it.. and hence there can be inifnite such realisations. ?

    naman.
    naren.

    Like

    • we have reached a point in writings where words cease to give meanings on a superficial plane …. so manana is required … with manana u understand things not by reading alone ..

      when MADHVACHARYA writes one word and RAYARU says it has got infinite meaning … one does not write infinite meaning …it is known by manana and discussion …

      say I write HARI sarvottama …

      and ASK did you understand …?

      one says yes whats there to understand here its simple HARI is SUPREME …

      again I ask did you understand >
      then one thinks and says IF HARI is SUPREME then why are there so many other people claimning to be GOD

      what does that mean after manana HE HAS NOT UNDERSTOOD HARI SARVOTTAMA …

      then after discussion he understands ..
      THEN I ASK DID YOU UNDERSTAND HARI SARVOTTAMA ?
      after thinking he says IF HARI IS SARVOTTAMA then why is NAMAKAM saying something …
      so discussion goes on …
      but even after infinite births discussions go on …

      did you understand HARI SARVOTTAMA ?
      but what about statemnet AHAMBRAMHASMI sir
      and also TATVAMASI
      and again this and again that …
      did you understand HARI SARVOTTAM ..
      even after infinite births NO …
      so vedas are infinte .. if two words can have infinite discussion .. then vedas must be infinite .. because discussion is wrt vedas only not with logic or mentalcookery …

      veda is one .. it has been divided into branches 4 10 100 1000 infinite
      rishis infinitely keep realising infinite concepts [ there are only 100 less 100 crore rishis ]

      Like

      • Acharya Sastang Namsakars,

        This reply of yours has awakened me.I am feeling as if i am surrounded by an envelop (maya) and am trying hard to come out of it.Yes Acharya you are right.

        Thanks
        Pramod.

        Like

      • Acharya,

        Each meaning of Sri Vishnu Sahasra Naama is the only way out i feel.

        Thanks
        Pramod.

        Like

  3. Acharya Namaskars,

    This post confirms the importance of Madhwa GURU for a sadhaka.Without a guru it is impossible to achieve anything in life.

    Thanks
    Pramod

    Like

    • IF NOT for MADHVACHARYA everybody would have been in delude .. that is why dasaru says … whatever let happen in life … i donot care … as long oh LORD by the grace of anandmuni’s shastra if I understand that its only you who run this show being in me and outside me …
      MAMA SWAMY SARVA SWAMY

      Like

  4. Dear Sir,
    pls reply. whats the pramana that jiva is parmanu? is aproksha possible before svatma bhuti? how to counter the advatin’s argument that i have raised in below post? have these doubts from long time. pls clarify

    sri krisnarpana.

    Like

Dear Readers , If you are asking a query , Kindly do not forget to worship SRIMAN NARAYANA and HANUMANJI and then write a number within 1800 followed by single digit number [ within 1-8 ] ,kindly Give time and current Place where you are asking query from ! , followed by number of virtual beetle leaves ,nuts and fruits you would like to give astrologer , and clear place ,time and date of birth . [take your hands off keyboard ] TOUCH a BODY part and kindly mention which part of the body Your hand is touching [ sprishtanga ] .... state your problem clearly , let us know what is it that your are looking for without ambiguity ! start and end with salutation to HARI ! If above procedure is not adhered to ,then no answers will be given !

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