Daksha Prajapati says ” father ,mother, guru, brother ,son, servants and dependents and those who look forward to us ..abhyagat, atithi and agni ..all these are to be looked after by a grahastha .. these come under POSHYA VARGA ..one must feed them at all times .. one must protect them at all times ..
MANU says the above mentioned poshyavarga should be protected and for this one requires money , thus one has to do dhansanchay … ie earn money … to protect the bodies sharira deha of poshyavarga dependents . For this one has to do dhan sanchay or sangraha according to the directions that has been laid for one’s jati and ashrama only . one must not push oneself into nindita [ shameful professions ] one should not do prohibited karya ,.. and one should also not earn wealth by giving lot of trouble to ones own body …
Daksha says ” divide the part of dayinto 8 … and in that third part should be utilised for the earning of wealth for dependents . ”
BRAMHANA has to do 1.adhyaapan means teaching lessons 2. adhyayan learning lessons 3. yajan means to do yagnya and other vedokta karya . 4. yaajan means getting yangya done for others 5 . daan to give daan 6. pratigraha means to take daana … these are six karmas
but out of this six // getting yagynas for others …. taking daana from parishuddha clean satvik yejamana … and teach the lessons … these three a bRAMHANA can keep as options for living an earning … BUT he should do them compulsorily is not a rule .
GAUTAM says ” bramhana kshatriya vaishya are dwijatis because they are born aain by a upanayana .. these dwijatis /// should do compulsorily adhyayan yajan and daan ….
But adhyaapan yaajan and pratigraha is exclusive rights of BRAMHANA only others must not do this .. BUT BRAMHANA should do them only when necessary not as compulsion ..
apart from three KSHATRIYA should live by shastra and astra and he should protect the people ..that is kshatriyas jeevanopaaya .. OPENING a shop and doing trade and rearing cattle and protecting cattle and doing agriculture can be taken as jeevan upaya [modes of earning for ] vaishya .
Yagnyavalkya says a vaishya should live by
- giving money on interest
- taking one good at lesser cost and selling at higher cost is known as vanijya
- protecting animals [rearing cattle ]
among cattle SHANKHA muni has said some special about COW and its raising by vaishyas
- one must not drink water before cows had drunk water
- when cows are standing one must not sit
- one must not move a cow which is sitting or sleeping, by force
- one must use green just erupted plants to wake up cows .. one must not use sticks or batons
- one must not force ox into steep places or places where there is no water
- one must take care personally by personal pesence the sick , young , or very aged or tired cattles with all possible upachaara .
- one must relieve them from pain and difficulties as much as possible as far as possible within one limits .
one who does not do as said above will get undesired results .
there are seven ways in which a money can come to a person .
- daay means wealth which comes by inheritance of dynasty ..
- labh means wealth got from under the ground as nidhi ..
- kraya means getting a goods at a gain ..[ these three daaya labh and kraya is common for all the three bramhanas kshatriyas and vaishyas ]
- jaya means winning from enemies this is fit for kshatriyas
- prayoga means using the wealth for interest banking or transactions
- karmayoga means agriculture and vanijya [ these are fit for vaishyas ]
- satparigraha means taking daana from sajjanas [ this is exclusively for bramhanas ]
AMong all the means of wealth .. for second one VISHNU bhagavaan in Vishnu smriti has laid special rules ..
- A bramhana if he gets wealth as treasure , he can keep everything for himself ..
- if a kshatriya gets wealth as treasure then he has to make four parts of the wealth .. one part he should give to KING second part he should give to bramhanas as daana … and rest two part he can keep it to himself
- if a vaishya gets a treasure then he should also make three parts .. one he should give it to king and two parts he must give it to bramhanas … and one part he can keep it with himself ..
- if a shudra gets treasure he should make twelve parts of it … five parts he must give to king and five parts to bramhanas .. and two parts he can keep it .. [ kanaka dasa did this thats why he was called kanaka dasa ]
- One can live by two types of living .. ruta and amruta
- one can also live by two more methods knwn as mruta and pramruta
- sanyanruta means vanijya one cn live by it
- serving menials [ neecha seva ] is known as shvavrutti this one should never do
when a agriculturist has taken all his grains from the farm .. when his harvest is over .. and has left the farm for next season .. at that time when someone goes to the farm and collects left over dhanya grains and living by that is known as UNCH vrutti .. .. instead of that complete grains if one just picks up few strands unplucked and lives by the grains in it .. is known as SHEEL vrutti ..
this sheel and unch vrutti is known as ruta
living by something which comes all by itself without asking for is known as AMRUT
everyday living by bheeksha is known as mruta
living by agriculture is known as pramruta ..
opening a shop and living is known as satyanruta which involves speaking some truth and lies .. it can also mean vanijya
living by serving people lesser in qualities oneself is known as living by shvavrutti ..[ means living like a dog ]
out of these under any circumstances a bramhana should not resort to shvavrutti
out of six earlier once are better than later ones
yagnyavalkya says –
- one who has capacity to save grains worth a box is kusuldhanyak
- four mushthi [ handful] grains is known as ” kudupa” …..four kudupa makes one “prastha ” four prastha makes one “adaka ” four adaka grains makes one ‘DRONA ” two drona makes one “KHARIKA ” three KHARIKAS makes one “BHAAR ” four bhaar becomes one kumbhika .. SO second type of collector is one who saved KUMBHIKA DHANYA and is known as KUMBHIDHANYAK
- one who has saved for a three days worth food grains is known as “Tryahika “
- one who uses the grain brought the same day not keeping anything for next day is known as “Ashvastan”
kusuldhanya is one who does all the six karmas of bramhana .. kunhidhanyak is one who does only three trayhik does only yaajan and adhyaapan .. ashvastan does only adhyaapan ..
PARASHARA says in kaliyuga bramhana along with six karmas should do agriculture also but he must produce everything by himself and then do panchyagnya ..
kshatriya must also do agriculture but all by himself .. vaishyas can do agriculture and vanijya and can do yajan and daana ..
shudra must only do agriculture and vanijya … he must not do yajan etc ..
HARITASA says ..
eight bulls and agriculture with it is known as dharma .. six bulls can not be sadhan to dharma it can be only for self sustainance … using four is known as ghatuk .. and two bulls is known as neecha /// using calves , vehicles should not be used for agriculture .. old ox should not be used … one should use bulls only till afternoon fron morning aftre that one must bathe them .. decorate them and give them food fit for bramhanas ..
1/30 part of agriculture should be used for bramhanas .. 1/20 part for devatas and pitrus .. by this sins acrued in kaliyuga by doing agriculture doesnt come for a bramhana kshatriya or vaishya …
1/6 should be given as tax
shudra should live by serving others .. and live by salary given … if salary is not given by others .. then he can live selling goods .
devala says by which karm shudras can serve bramhana kshatriya vaishya … ? thaose work is known as shilpa karma [ engineering construction ] karuk karma panyavyavahara … finacial transacions .. process works .. designs chitra karma … sangeeta nartana .. music fashion …. veena tamata ..vaadya .. all these sudras can do ….
when in need one can ask money …. a praja can ask money to a king …. a guru can ask money to shishya .. purohit can ask yejamaan
when in much troubles a bramhana can ask money from any jaati ….
good money or bad money when it reaches raaj kosha it becomes pure .. so one can alwasy take money from king … fresh graduates must alwasy ask king for their livelihood …
one must not take money from patit …
the items that can be taken from patit also are
- iron parts
- precious stones
- these items if they come all by itselves without asking for even if they belong to patit can be accepted in apattakala
- yagnyavalkya adds water to above items and says if they come all by itself it shoudl not be rejected
but all the item are known as amrut vastu … hey can be accepted in toubled times … but then by accepting … for 15 years after acceptance pitrus will not accept pinda .. ie even if shraddha is done pitrus do not accept tem …
agni does not take his havishya in homa to devtas
amrut vastu can be accepted but if they belong to /// a vyabhichirini , napunsaka .. a hari nindak .shatru . vaidya ,hunter ,gambler murderer . it should not be accepted … [YAMA VACHAN]
bramhana when faced with death situation can give upadesha for saving his life ..he can do yaajan too .. he can eat at ayogya’s house too and take daana from him ..but he can do this only if he has a old parents to look after .. a pativrata stree .. a small child …one can do 100s of sins to save them and look afer them
when faced with extreme hunger one can eat anything .. if one does not get anything to eat for six consecutive meals … then one can eat anything he will not get any sins … vaamdeva ate dog but did not get any sins … ajigarta muni killed his own child when unable to bear the hunger he did not get any sins .. BHARADWAAJ muni unable to bear hunger accepted to eat infinite cows … pressed with hunger VISHWAMITRA snatched the half eaten testicles of dog from the hands of chandaala … he did not get any asuchi or sin … no did he get any ill fame they all were praised as one who knew dharma and adharma ..
so in nutshell in apatkaal one must do all akaarya also to save one’s life ..
when there is scope for living with ones own way of life one should not live like others .. when there is no scope fo living in ones own prescribed method .. one should try for other living ..
one should not live by giving money on interest .. ieven if one gets lot of troubles .. says narad muni ..
But koorma puraana says .. one can live by giving money on interest in tiimes of trouble but thye should try to leave it as early as possible ..
now two authorities are contradicting … SMRITIMUKTAVALI reconciles thus ..
taking money from other on interest and giving it at higher interest is known as VARDHOOSHIKI .. this should not be done .. one can give ones own money on interest and live with that interest till apatkaal is over ..
vasishtha says .. keep in one side of scale the sins of abortion .. and on the other side the sins of giving money through vardhooshiki .. the abortion one looks lighter ..
for one year one must charge 25 paise interest on rs 100 .. ie 0.25% pa ..
following should not be sold ..
- madi vastra
- sweet apup
- cane juice
- cooked rice [hotel ]
but shudras can sell the above items but not bramhanas ..
GAUTAM says barter can be done in any form
one can give milk can take curds … give cooked food and take liquids in return or nay other cooked food ..
when one wants to do dharma karya one can give him til and take in return equivalent of weight any other thing but not money …
One must earn to look after poshyavarga ..all the earnings should be accomplished between 9 and 10.30 am .. only …
one must spend less and keep oneself happy.
one should have hot rice to eat , he should have ghee to be put on it .. tht is enough .. the dress one wears if it is not tearing that is enough ./.. if there is no necessity to serve others .. that is enough ..
having anna food as said above and dress as said above and does not have misfortune to serve a menial only that MAN IS FORTUNATE
ANYBODY ASPIRING MORE MONEY THAN THIS GET ADHOGATI ..