Hitherto Unknown Secrets !

Archive for the ‘niyama’ Category

Rayar Mahima !

Laya Chintana !

* One gets moxa only when does laya chintana everyday .the phala of this chintana is release from janma-mrityu cycle

* There is an in-depth version for the advanced Sadhakas, for a novice the given chintana is adequate

* Prior to sleeping one must the laya chintana. Enters means laya. In other words, each entity is tatva and it recoils, merges into the former

* Laya is of two types : Garuda Marga and Sesha Marga

GARUDA MARGA:

1. Indra Marga-1:

a. Varnashrama dharmarata Manushyottam get laya into Nirruti

b. Nirruti along with= all “pitrus’, 100 kings like Prithu etc., together with Vaivasta etc., and 12 Manus enters Yamadharmaraya

c. Yamadharma enters Swayambhu Manu

d. Swayambhu manu along with Shatarupadevi enters Indra [this is one sub Indra marga]

2. Indra Marga-2:

a. Forty-nine Maruts along with Pravaha Vayu and Ahankarika Praana enter Indra

3. Indra Marga-3:

a. Sadhyagana enter Ganesha and stay in Akaash

b. Mrityu gana and Rubhugana enter Prithvi tatva

c. Sons of Agni and all sons of devatas enter Agni and Agni enters Aditya

d. Akaash, Prithvi and Aditya get Laya in Brihaspatiacharya

e. Brihaspati alongwith Taradevi enter Indra (this is the third Indra marga)

4. Indra Marga 4:

a. All 100 less 100 crores rishis, 80 special rishis -Marichi etc, Saptarishis, Bhrighu Rishi, Narada and all Devarishis enter Daksha Prajapati

b. Daksha Prajapati with Prasuti Devi enters Indra (this is the fourth Indra marga)

5. Indra alongwith Sachidevi enters Sauvarnidevi and Jambawatidevi enter Sauvarni devi

6. 6. Sauvarni Devi enters Garuda in Garuda Marga.

SHESHA MARGA:

Here there is only one marga:

1. Manushya Gandharva enter into Devagandharva, Devagandharva who in turn enter Ajanaja devatas. These Ajanaja devatas enter Kubera

2. Kubera enters Varuna

3. And Varuna enters Chandra

4. Chandra along with Vishwaksena, Jaya, Vijaya enter Aniruddha

5. Aniruddha alongwith Sanakaadi enter Kaamadeva

6. Kaamadeva and Ratidevi, enter Vaaruni devi

7. Vaaruni devi enters Shesha. This is Shesha Marga

1. (Gurukulite query: what about Nagas such as Vasuki, Takshaka etc)

8. Both Garuda and Shesha deva enter Saraswati devi

9. Saraswati enters Brahma

10. Brahma enters Tejomaya Lakshmidevi

11. Lakshmidevi enters Atyanta Saamipya of Lord and engages in Dhyaana

12. In this manner while doing Laya chintana upto Narayana, one must do aikya chintana of Dakshinakshigata Vishwa namak Paramatma, Swapna Preraka Kanthagata Taijas in Taijas namak paramatma and Suptiprada Hrudgata Jeevantaryaami Pragnya namak Hari (aikya) into Bimba roopi Hari

QUESTION AND ANSWERS:

Question: How to visualise and should we remember the previous sequence?

Chiraan : For example Saraswati is Smara Tatva and merges in Mahatatva. What does merging mean, how can souls do this?

One can imagine Saraswati entering Brahmas heart. Manushyas represent Varnashrama dharma.

Question: Does this happen till last janma for manushyas? Happens at the end of brahma kalpa 100 years of brahma and sadhana happens until then. Laya happens in taratamya order.

Chiraan : Laya happens at 4 levels. 1. Nitya Manujanma level 2. Manykalpa level 3. Brahma dina kalpa 4. Brahma Mahakalpa.

Question: Who is Aniruddha who enters Kamadeva and what is his function?

Chiraan : Aniruddha is Shatrughna of Ramayana

Question: Is Aniruddha roopi Hari same as Aniruddha in the 10th kaxa of taratamya? Similar is the query in the context of Pradyumna and Kamadeva who in 8th kaxa.

Chiraan: Vishnu roopas are supreme and do not occur in any kaxa.

Note: Aniruddha is devata for procreation. Kamadeva is devata for avidya, shadvairis. Laya chintana and panchikarana aata by Sri Vadirajaru.

If we do karma samarpana in this way which will finally reach Hari. When we say Krishnarpana it goes in this marga.

Question: Is there a difference between laya chintana and golaka chintan?

Chiraan: Each step mentioned is Laya chintana is golaka. But Mukhya golaka is Vayu for the Lord. Hence during Arpana we say prana antargat Lord.

Question: Who are mrityu ganas and rubhu ganas?

Chiraan : Yama dhootas are mrityu gana and Shiva/marut ganas are rubhuganas

||Shri Krishnarpanamastu||

DHANURMASA VISHESH !

Shri LaxminArAyaNAy Namah

 

One day Dhanurmasa pooja equals 1000 years of daily pooja.

 

Godaan, bhudaan, tildaan, hiranya daana can be done in dhanurmasa. On Vyatipat yoga pitru tarpana should be given and one must give arghya. For ishta prapti laxmi dwadash naam is must.

MUDGANNA NAIVEDYA

Give Bramahan bhojana in ushah kala [i.e. before sunrise] after giving naivedya of mudganna mixed with curds. Such Bramhana santarpana will give Gnana.

 

No vrat, japa, niyama, or daana equals mudganna naivedya to Hari.

 

Shachi devi by giving this naivedya in dhanurmasa, got Indra back his padavi when Indra had lost the throne to rakshasas. Thus, one gains back lost glory by doing this Dhanurmasa Pooja.

 

1. Mudganna mixed with cashews ghee

2. Mudganna with guD, elaichi, raisins

3. Mudganna with ghee ilaichi amla sharkara

4. mudganna with adrak kalimirch, kopra ghee cashews

5.Mudganna mixed with curds

 

One must give dana of fruits, jiggery, ghee, sugar, makkhan [butter] for Lord’s preeti along with Mudganna.

Mudgaan should be hot during naivedya. One must reduce his usual pooja time and quickly do naivedya in Dhanurmasa just like sadhana dwadashi as delaying naivedya will make one poor diseased and Vishnu drohi. Sandhi Kala is atyant siddhiprada, Dhanurmasa is sandhi kala for devatas. In Dhanurmasa  Sandhyavandan, itar, Pooja, anushthana, etc. can be done after naivedya.

PHALA

Offering Mudganna Naivedya gives:

* Ishtartha siddhi

* If one does it for entire month he will become a YOGI

* At the same time he will become very rich in every janma

* He will be a Vaishnava in every JANMA- janma after janma

* Proper offering of Mudganna naivedya to SRIHARI, in proper proportion, will make one (the person offering the naivedya) overcome his enemies in no time.

* One who does this naivedya becomes CHIRAYU and DHANIK and VEDA parangat

* For one who does adrak (ginger) mixed huggi (seasoned Rice gruel) naivedya for him what is the use of ganga snan, japa, tapa, yagnya, yaaga as all these phala will be begotten through the offering this naivedya alone.

* One who gives naivedya of Mudganna and then gives Bramhan bhojana in the name of Pitrus, he will get 10000 times more punya phal than gaya shraddha and Raam Setu shrAddha as such a Bramhan bhojana will ensure Vishnu-pad for Pitrus.

* One who does naivedya himself in Dhanurmasa is Bhaagavat Shrestha

* 100 agnishoma 100 vaajpeya yagya will not equal HUGGI naivedya in Vyatipaat Yoga of Dhanurmasa- tommorrow (December 20th, 2012) is Vyatipat yoga

* Even paapis such as veda bhrastha, vrata bhrashta, karma bhrasta, and/or mitra-drohi become clean by doing Mudganna daan in Dhanurmasa.

 

Note: Vyatipat is Vishnu Chakra- It is Hari rupa with infinite arms.

 

||Shri Krisharpanamastu||

ShriHayagreeva stotram !

ॐ ॥ हयग्रीव दयासिंधो बन्धो सज्जनसंततेः । त्रयीग्रीव नमश्चान्द्रसान्द्रकान्तिसमांशुमन् ॥

स्वामिन्सघृण काप्यम्बा किं बालकममुञ्चत । पालय श्रीपते तस्मादस्मान्सेवकान् ॥

ईश तेऽनीश जीव त्वं तत्त्वं वक्ति न युक्तिमान् । अश्वो भूत्वाऽपि यो मर्त्योऽमर्त्यो वाश्वो जगत्त्रये ॥

हयास्य पश्य भृत्यं ते हन्तेमे भूतराक्षसाः । जिघांसंत्यात्तचक्रस्त्वं सत्वं विस्तार्य रक्षमाम् ॥

यमोऽपि ते भटस्त्वं च पञ्चरूपो भवान्प्रभुः । आज्ञापयतु राजाऽसौ दासायं मयि मोचयेत् ॥

अनन्तगुणसंपूर्ण धूर्न काऽप्यत्र मे प्रिया । तव पादाब्जसेवैव जैवबन्धविमोिचनी ॥

सुरम्य सुखचिद्रूप धूपदीपार्चनादिकम् । तव प्रियं सदा कु्र्यां पुर्यां वा पर्वतेऽपि वा ॥

विद्यां देहि  विवेकं च शं च सर्वत्र देहि मे । श्रद्धां देहि तथा पाहि मा हिनस्ति यथा परः ॥

ससुरासुरगंधर्वपूर्वसर्वजगत्पते । शरणं भव वाणीशवीशभोगीशसेवित ॥

हयाननं हर क्लेशं लेशं दर्शय नः प्रभो । भवन्मुखाम्बुजे  नृत्यच्छुत्यन्ताख्यवधूहृदाम् ॥

वादिराजाख्ययतिना सादरं रचितां स्तुतिम् । श्रीधरांघ्रियुगे भक्तीं साधयान् सर्वदा पठेत्॥

॥इति श्रीमद्वादिराजपुज्यचरणविरचितं हयग्रीवस्तोत्रं समाप्तम् ॥

श्रीकृष्णार्पणमस्तु

RAMAYANA- Shwetaraaj charitra !

ShriRAMA after reining Ayodhya for 13000 years once  visited Agastyashram . [ This is after killing Shambuka ] .

Agastyamuni who is born out of pitcher is known as  Kumbhasambhava  . Immediately rose from his seat on seeing LORD RAAMA and offered his prayers .And after prayers offered one beautiful  MAALA [ garland ] which was clean and crystal clear and very pleasing to the mind –  nirmala amalina malaa . With devotion Agastya muni says ”

HEY RAAM ! This garland has been given to me by KING SHWETA to be offered at your LOTUS feet .

Once while Agastya muni saw a  dead body in the midst of the jungle . After sometime SAGE saw a very bright divine aircraft  descending from the heavens .From the PLANE alighted a Luminous KINGLY personality . The KING in divine heavenly form descended from the PLANE and started eating the flesh of the dead body . Looking at the ghastly sight .. Sage AGASTYA asked OH divine King who are You ? why are you performing this dastardly act . what besieges you to eat a dead mans’ flesh . You do not seem to be a demon or demonic creature either .. and you are descending from heaven so you must have done only good deeds in previous birth as you have reached heaven .. then why this evil has befallen you ?

The KING said ” Oh salutation to you Oh Sage Agastya ! its my good fortune and end of bad karma that I have had a holy sight of divine person like yourselves .. Now my miseries have ended … ! Listen Oh pious Bramhin rishi … I am king Shweta .

I was doing tapasya [ penace ] in this region known as Dandakaranya . This region was ruled by a KIng named DANDA . it was once a beautiful KINGDOM full of palaces and streets . Once Danda was infatuated with the daughter if SHUKRACHARYA . For this Shukracharya the guru of demons cursed him and his kingdom to become a uninhabited dense Forest . [ ie king became daridra for having lusted guru’s daughter  ] and this place came to be known as DANDAKARANYA .

KING Shweta had done many tapasya and conducted many vratas , yagnyas . BUT after completing the VRATAS NIYAMA YAGNYA etc ,, KING did not do nay bramhana BHOJANA .. so all his yagnyas became anannayagnya . Because the yagnyas he did get Swarga  but there he could not  eat any food for himself .. All sort of food abhorred him … He was dissatisfied  even in HEAVEN among apasaras and all sorts of enjoyments but Hunger troubled him a lot and all the food available could not be eaten by him … SO unable to bear hunger He asked BRAMHA as to why this evil had befallen him . BRAMHA devaru said .. as he had not given for Bramhana bhojana and annadana after yagnyas …He will be dissatisfied even though he got heaven for his karma , he  will not be able to eat heavenly food . SO king asked where to seek satisfaction from hunger .. He said his heavenly body still in the DANDAKARANYA and he has no option but to eat his own flesh there to find satisfaction ..

Unable to bear this bad situation .. KING shweta pleaded BRAMH deva to relieve him off his pain .. and give him some remedy for his FOLLY ..

BRAMHA ji  took pity on him and said .. Oh KIng SHWETA .. take this garland .. and give it to SAGE AGASTYA to offer this LORD RAAMA .. THis will relieve you from this evil state .

saying so King Shweta offered with devotion a divine garland to Sage AGASTYA .. and the dead body disappeared .. and again KING Shweta went to heaven peacefully in the divine plane .

SAGE AGASTYA offered the GARLAND to LORD RAAMA narrating this incident.

note – why did BRAMHAji not ask KING shweta to offer garland directly to LORD RAAMA .. ?

ans – KIng’s problem was only to get relieved from the state of hunger .. Offering garland to RAAMA would have resulted in much more punya , which KING was not seeking .and was not eligible either … Thus BRAMHAJI asked KING to give garland to sage AGASTYA and it was Sage AGASTYA who offered GArland to RAAMA and became eligible for complete Punya arising out of such offering …

special point to be noted – OFFERING GARLAND TO LORD RESULTS IN OBTAINING ANNA FOOD [ this is a great secret ] ..

“devaay maalarpaNena analabho bhavatiti paramarahasyam ” – poojakalapalata grantham

Thus while narrating this story SUN set in the west and SO LORD RAAMA spent the night among the sages in the ashram .

NEXT day LORD RAAMA said ” punaste darshanam BHUYAAT ” .. to agastya muni that “We shall meet again .Oh Sage you are the one who cleanse the men off their sins and make them pure ” .. sage burst into tears and said ” Oh RAAM ! by constant remembrance of  lotus feet I HAVE BECOME CLEANSED myself  ! You are the very GOD Oh RAAM ! just by listening to your name , remembering your avataras and singing your praises , even those who have sinned with mahapatakas ie unpardonable sins also get purified cleansed and respected devout ”

LORD RAAMA with a soft smile looking at the SAGE boarded the PUSHPAK VIMANA and reached AYODHYA .. and then asked PUSHPAK to return whenever called for .. Having said that PUSHPAK automatically left for KUBERA’s place . on a autopilot mode .

THEN LORD SRIRAAMA invited BHARAT AND LAKSHMAN to his palace and decided to do a YAGNYA .. LAKSHMAN suggested ASHWAMEDHA YAGNYA ! .

krishnarpanamastu .

Snana -5 !

Pratah snana vidhi

 

as per panchasanskaarsangraha snana should be done in following way

  1. One desirous of nityasnana should go to the banks of the river or jalashay . while going one must take saligrama in a box . for abhisheka he must carry a harivaNa .. and for snana tulasi mrittika . he should take three dips in the river for cleaning sweat and dirt .
  2. then one should come to the bank .
  3. clean the body by rubbing it profusely and again take  a dip in the river
  4. again come back to the bank of the river and sit .
  5. open the box containing saligrama .
  6. remove the tulasi flower nirmalya and do visarjana of nirmalya
  7. keep the saligrama pratima sudarshan in the harivana .
  8. keep the tulasi mrittika before th LORD ..
  9. say the tithi day etc for sankalpa and ” vishnupreranaya vishnuprithyartham ” snana sankalpa should be done
  10. with pranava “OM ” one must do prokshana of mrittika
  11. do japa of gayatri for three times on mrittika
  12. make three parts of the mrittika
  13. take the first part in two hands
  14. show it to the surya .. if before sunrise do dhyana of surya and give samarpana
  15. ” nyona prithivi …” mantra should be chanted and with first part clean the foot from knees downwards
  16. wash the two hands
  17. repeat it second time
  18. take the second part of the mrittika
  19. show it to surya deva and do surya dhyana and samarpana
  20. rub it on the forehead forearms and legs chanting ” gandhadwaram …” mantra . two sides of the body should be rubbed with ” udhrutaasi varaheNa .. ” mantra
  21. wash the two hands
  22. repeat it second time
  23. ” namah kamalnabhaay namaste jalashayine | namastestu hrishikesh grahaNaamarghyam namostute || ” give arghya with this mantra for three times
  24. atitikshna mahakaay kalpantadahanopam | bhairavay namastubhyamanugnyam datumarha ||  with this mantra one must take the permission of BHAIRAVA who protects the teertha .
  25. “samasta jagadadhar shankhachakragadadhar | dev dehi mamanugnyam yushmatteerthanishaveNe || ” with this mantra one must take permission of teerthantargat Parmatma
  26. take the thrid portion of the mrittika in the right hand tightly .
  27. with left hand one must clean the place where mrittika has been kept
  28. one must do namaskaara to deva and guru
  29. get down into the river
  30. one must stand with water till waist or knees . one must stand opposite to the flow of river , if in jalashay one must face SUN .and take three dips
  31. keep the mrittika in the right hand on shoulder
  32. do achamana for three times
  33. do pranayama for three times
  34. take some part of mrittika on shoulder and mix it water
  35. rest of the part keep in the hand
  36. from head to toe cleanse with mrittika reciting OM .
  37. dip three times reciting dwadashakshar mantra three times . with ashtakshar three times . with shadakshar three times .
  38. while taking dip inside the water one must do smarane of NARAYANA as sleeping in the water .
  39. as much as possible recite the mantras being completely immersed in the water
  40. with OM come rise from the water .
  41. close all the fingers of left palm like a mushthi . inside this mushthi keep the right thumb and rest four fingers of right hand keep on the left mushthi .this is known as shankha mudra . ” aapo hishtha mayo bhuva …” etc mantras are knwon to praise AAP namak HARI .. hence they are known as ‘ablingmantras’. chanting these mantras with shankha mudra dipping in the water one must do prokshana of head heart  two shoulders and all the body .
  42. ” rutan ch satyam ..” three times recite this mantra OR in kumbhaka recite aghamarshana suktam
  43. DHYANA of NARAYANA in water
  44. rise from the water
  45. with shankha mudra recite purush sukta and do prokshana on head and do dhyana of NARAYANA having abhisheka in your heart …
  46. do achamaan  
  47. with water make urdhwapundra naam
  48. come to the banks of the river
  49. wash the place three times, where one  stands
  50.  yagnyopaveet should be apasavya [ only those who have pitru adhikaara ] ,    “ye ke chasmatkule jaata aputra gotriNo mrutaah | te gruhNantu maya dattam vastranishpeednodakam || ” with this mantra squeeze the clothe [vastra ] that one is wearing [wet ] .while squeezing pitru teertha in the palms must be facing downwards and rest of the part should be on vastra .
  51. second time achamaan
  52. deva saligrama abhisheka should be done [ savya ]
  53. that saligrama teertha should be given to sanakadi muni and other devatas
  54. put some teertha on the head
  55. give deva tarpana rishi tarpana and pitru tarpana [ those who have adhikaara ]
  56. do achamaan
  57. brush your hairs with hands till the water running from head stops . do dhyana of srihari during this time
  58. ” apavitra pavitro va sarvavasthaam gatopi va | yah smaret pundarikakasham sa bahyabhyantar shuchi ” do prokshan with this mantra on a clean clothe vastra .
  59. first cover the head with one vastra and use the other part to cover body and put kacche upper side .
  60. sit down
  61. wash the legs .
  62. rinse the mouth ..
  63. twice achamaan
  64. use gopichandan
  65. achaman
  66. sandhyavandan
  67. join two edges of the clothe , this is knwon as dwiguna, again join the edges of the cloth , this is chaturguna . this chaturguna vastra we should squeeze after coming out of the river .
  68. this vastra should not be kept on the wrist , if kept it will become asuchi .
  69. if done twice achamaan should be done for shuddhi
  70. one should not keep the squeezed clothe on the shoulder ..if kept it ios known as rakshas karma .. for shuddhi one must do snana again .

Thus the different parts of the kriya known as PRATAH SNANA should be carried out to get proper snana phala .

krishnarpanamastu

 

 

 

Snana -2 !

AMALAKI SNANA

snana with indian gooseberry [ nellikayi ,amla ] and eating amla give VISHNUPREETI . HARI is especially pleased with those who take bathw ith amla powder on ekadashi day and dwadashi day both snana and eating of amla is very auspicious and gains special affection of LORD Vishnu

VYASA rishi says ,

those days where snana with amalaki is prohibited are

  1. saptami
  2. navami
  3. sunday
  4. tuesday
  5. eclipse
  6. sankranti
  7. sashti
  8. parvadina
  9. night times
  10. pournima
  11. amavasya

shatataap rishi says one must not take snana with amalaki in the early morning hours .. this puts all the days as nishiddha .. then dwadashi one must do snana with amalaki becomes an exception …rest days afternoon bath ,evening bath can be done with amalaki .

If one does snana with malaki on the nishiddha prohibited days than one will suffer poverty ..

if prohibited days fall on ekadashi then amalaki snana on such days gives immense punya .. so say shattrinshansmriti …

TIL SNANA

  1. snana with til
  2. applying til powder to entire body
  3. homa with til
  4. pitru tarpana with til
  5. eating til and jaggery
  6. giving dana of til

those who perform these six karmas will never get tired and tiredness will cease if any ..

Vyasa says those who desire the betterment of servants ,friends and wife should never touch til  on

  1. amavasya
  2. sankraman
  3. ashtami
  4. sunday
  5. poornima
  6. vyatipaata
  7. eclipse
  8. vaidhruti yoga
  9. midnight
  10. ekadashi
  11. dwadashi
  12. vrata days

during the evening and night times one must use oil or powders of til either for eating or snana ,eating food which is larger than its seed during night reduces wealth ..

SAMUDRA SNANA VIDHI

  1. Pashaan mantra
  2. Avahana
  3. namaskaar
  4. arghya
  5. prarthana
  6. anugnya
  7. snana
  8. ten tarpana

these eight kriya completes the samudra snana and makes one eligible to get samudra snana phala .

these are :

PASHAAN MANTRA

पिप्पलाादसमुत्तन्ने कृत्ये लोकभयँकरी । पाषाणम ते मया दत्त माहारार्थम प्रकल्पितम् ॥

आ‌वाहन मंत्र

पिशाची च घृताची च विश्वयोने विशाम् पते । सानिध्यम् कुरुमे देव सागरे लवणांधसि ॥

नमस्कार मंत्र

नमस्ते विश्वगुप्ताय नमो विष्णुवपां पते ।नमो जलधिरूपाय नदीनाम् पतये नमः ॥

अर्घ्य मंत्र

सर्वरत्नमयः श्रीमान सर्वरत्नाकराकर । सर्वरत्नप्रदातस्त्वं  गृहाणामर्घ्यम् महोदधे ॥

प्रार्थना मंत्र

पृथिव्याम् यानि तीर्थानि प्राविशंस्त्वाम् महोदधे । स्नातस्य मे फलम् देहि सर्वस्मादपि चांधसः ॥

अभ्यनुज्ञा मंत्र

समस्तजगदाधार शंखचक्रगदाधर । अनुज्ञाम् देहि मे देव युष्मत्तीर्थनिषेवणे ॥

स्नान मंत्र

वेदादयो वेदवशिष्ठ योनिः सरित्पतिः सागररत्नयोनिः । अग्निश्च मे तेज इला च तेजो रेतोधा यज्ञममृतस्य च नाभिः ॥इदं तेऽन्याभिरसमानमद्भिर्याः काश्च सिंधुम् प्रविशंत्यापः । सर्वो जीर्णामिव त्वचं जहाते पापं शरीरात्सशिरस्कोऽभ्युपेत्य ॥

तर्पण मंत्र

  1. पिप्पलादम् तर्पयामि
  2. कविं तर्पयामि
  3. कण्वं तर्पयामि
  4. कृतांतम् तर्पयामि
  5. जीवकेश्वरं तर्पयामि
  6. मन्युम् तर्पयामि
  7. कालरात्रिम् तर्पयामि
  8. विद्यां तर्पयामि
  9. अहर्गणेश्वरं तर्पयामि
  10. समुद्रम् तर्पयामि

तदनंतरं  देव तर्पणम्  ‍रिषि तर्पणम् पितृ तर्पणम्

this completes the smaudra snana

one must not do achamana with samudra water .. one must not do achaman with hot water and tarpana should be given from samudra water only ..

krishnarpanamastu

 

 

 

Tag Cloud

%d bloggers like this: