Krute papeanutapo vai yasya punsa prajayate |
Prayashchittam tu tasyoktam harisamsmaranam param ||
We do many sins everyday . Every sin over a period of time becomes a prarabdha . Once it becomes prarabdha one pays for his sins and is subjugated to dukha .
In Bhagavadgeeta , ARJUN asks on behalf of all of the troubled souls that :
OH Lord , why is it that unwillingly one is forced to do the sins under some influence .Which is this force ?
Geetacharya says :
Primarily it is KAMA [desires] and as a result accompanies Krodha [ anger] etc . which drives people to sin . That means , humans primarily desire something , when it is not fulfilled or if the desired is under threat [ threat of extinction , loss or damage] , one gets emotions like , greed , anger ,jealousy etc and then one is inspired to sin .
These defects like anger lust greed etc are the byproducts of the rajoguna . These are presided by [ inspired by ] demons like KALNEMI etc . BUT LORD is the main inspiration . ie EVEN evil is under the control of LORD .
Lord keeping these asuras [ demons] like kali kalnemi etc as the medium of inspiration ,activates the rajoguna in the persons according to their capacity ,qualities and karma and efforts , thereby arises lust anger and greed etc in the humans leading to sins .
Though Lord is chief regulator of sins among the jeevas HE himself is not subjugated or influenced by these rajoguna /tamoguna . Thus these defects do not exist in HIM and yet he regulates these qualities and only to grace his devotees makes them sin .
The demons like Kalnemi etc are secondary regulators of the sin by the inspiration of LORD . BUT these demons do get influenced by the rajo/tamo gunas and are chief perpetrators of the sins in other jeevas .
As jeevas sin owing to these inspirations under the influence of KAlnemi etc , chief fruits of the [ greater fruits ] goes to these demons only and as jeeva is also part of the sin though forcibly participated [ owing to prarabdha ] he is also liable for dukha .
We all are reaping the ill effects of the sins of previous births . So sins of this birth may not be instantly fruitful .But in coming births even these are going to trouble . Some sins like bramhahatya etc are forceful in execution and they take effects even in the present birth also . These overlap with existing prarabdha adding to the woes ,
Such sins ,when committed by the unwitting mind , causes fear of ill-effects . To avoid such ill effects and in order to save oneself from the clutches of aftereffects of such sins , the remedy given by the shastras is PRAYASCHITTA . [ PARIHARA]
In bhagavat Parikshit Maharaj asks , what are sins , varieties of sins and its effects and various hells to reap such sins . How to get rid of such effects . In answer to these SHUKACHARYA presents the methodology of PRAYASCHITTA . HE says , just as a good doctor ,examines the disease and its extent in a human body and thereafter suggests a suitable treatment , similarly a sadhak [devotee] should examine the sins he had committed in his lifetime and take up appropriate prayaschitta according to the shastras .
Usually when one speaks about Prayaschitta , one is given a list of homa havan japa tapa dana upavasa. Is prayaschitta really about only kriya like homa etc . These are infact only its angas they themselves are not prayaschitta . If it were so then performing such homa dana is akin to KUNJARSHOUCHA [ the bath of elephant ] . Thus commented PARIKSHIT .
Srimadananda teertha has given excellent solution to such doubts . He tabulates prayashchitta as follows .
- One who has done the sins should have definite remorse[pashchattapa] and should have sincere repentance towards the sins and inclination towards atonement of sins .
- For Such remorse to occur [ paschattap ] correct information of sins should exist
- .Chief part of the prayashchitta is HArisamsmaranam ie remembering lord with devotion .
- Secondarily other aspects of homa havan dana should also be undertaken as a service to LORD remembering him during such acts as well .
Here the word Hari smaranam is appended with the word Sam . This indicates that one must remember HARI with complete devotion [ auspiciously] . It should also accompany the contemplation on the quality of HARI ie one who destroys the sins . It is said that human however hard he tries cannot sin to the extent which cannot be destroyed by the chant of HARI . There is no sin in the universe which cannot be overcome by the chant of HARI .
Lord should be meditated[ smaranam, remembrance ] as the one who mitigates sins . At the same time one must realize his magnanimity . He is bhaktavatsal -one who is very kind towards his devotees an forgives their sins ,however grave they may be .
Tantra sara says one begets the fruits as per his meditation ie , as one thinks of LORD the bhava involved in such thoughts is what the results constitutes . [ if one thinks about LORD as kind and destroyer of sins , one gets the same result contrary thinking will result in otherwise ] .
Rudra -Indra – chandra all these devatas have done grave sins like Bramha hatya etc yet Lord has forgiven them and saved them from harmful effects and on the contrary blessed them with definite Moksha . These incidents are abundant in Shastra and Purana and prove the bHaktvaatsalya of LORD NARAYANA .
Let us first understand different SINS . Vishnudharmottar purana gives a exhaustive list of sins . Why should we have info on sins , because If we need to atone the sins then we must have remorse[ pashchattap] , the paschattap primarily consists of acceptance of having done the sin and then a strong resolution that such sins will not be repeated . and then when prayaschitta is done one gets relief from the karma .
BUT if we do not know at all what we are doing is sin then how can we feel remorse and atone for it ! Thus it is necessary to know that” these are sins which we must not do ” .
Such papa parichaya is known only through the shastras .
Sins are MAHANMAHATTARPATAKA ,SUMAHATTARPATAKA ,SUMAHAPATAKA, MAHAPATAKA , PATAKAs , UPAPATAKAS and Papa and Kshudra papa ,
each lesser in the order THAN THE PREVIOUS SINS .
- Bramhahatya [ killing of bramhin ]
- surapaana [ dinking alcohol or drugs]
- Suvarnasteya [stealing gold ]
- Gurupatni gaman [ abusing wife of preceptors]
- Mahapataki sanyog [ association with these sinners ]
These are panchamahapataka ie grave sins [ usually unpardonable by the LORD and at the same time gives instantaneous downfall]
- Inviting poor bramhin and not giving him alms ,
- bringing obstructions to the living of bramhins ,
- disrupting their livelihood .
- burning or destroying ashram , houses ,villages or towns [ blasts]
- stopping thirsty cows from going towards the pond or water bodies
- Without knowing the actual purport of vedas and shastras , demeaning them or insulting them
- making fun of deaf dumb blind etc and stealing their articles
- Calling teachers and preceptors by their first name or ekavachan ie tu etc
- Disobedience towards elders and teachers and making a sound of HUM in resentment towards their words .
- If anything is most precious to a weak person [ deen vyakti] just disturbing his possession .
All these sins are equivalent to BRAMHAHATYA .
Leaving asides vedas , foulmouthing vedas , giving false witness ,killing a friend , eating inedible foods All these are equivalent to SURAAPAAN [ alcohol and drug abuse]
Usurping mortagaged article , illegal human trafficking , horse silver diamonds and land grabbing come under the pretext of SUVARNASTEYA [ stealing GOLD ]
- brothers and sisters [ sayoni stree ]
- unmarried girls [ kumari ]
- outcaste woman [ antyaj stree ]
- Friends wife [ sakhyu]
- daughter in law [ putra vadhu]
All these are equivalent to GuRUPATNI SANGAM .
These are unpardonable sins .
Dharma viveka says
- killing ants are Kshudra papa
- killing animals having bones ,and stealing fruits grains etc are known as papa
- misbehaving with women is known as upapataka
- killing / atrocities on shudras is known as pataka
- Bramhahatya etc is known as mahapataka
- stealing Anything belonging to devatas ie temple properties are known as sumahapataka
- insulting devatas [deities ] and sajjanas [ devotees] is known as sumahhatar pataka
- Sins towards LORD KEshava is known as MAHANMAHATTAR PATAKA .
What are sins done towards LORD ? Following contemplations are sins :
- There is someone equivalent to KESHAVA
- I am GOD
- Bramha shiva shakti etc are all equivalent to VISHNU
- There is no qualities in Keshava [ nirgunabramha]
- ALL those who have attained MOKSHA become KESHAVA [ GOD]
- There is no form to the GOD
- Keshava has body just like us souls . [ trigunatmak deha]
- Just like souls God too has birth death and old age .
- Sometimes GOD undergoes misery and ignorance[ dukha agyana ]
- Keshava is subservient to another GOD
- Somebody is superior to KESHAVA .
All these form disobedience towards LORD KRISHNA .
Usually God’s qualities are known as SUR . Thinking about these qualities in one’s own self is known as SURAAPAAN . This is mahapataka.
We always keep saying , ” I DID ‘ I ATE ‘ MY HOUSE ” etc . all these statement shows our ignorance towards the fact that we are dependent on LORD and HE alone is independent and everything belongs to HIM . But saying it to be ours is akin to attributing his independent quality to ourselves ,thus it is suraapaan .
Vishnu is known as BRAMHANA . Saying there is no GOD VISHNU is akin to BRAMHA HATYA .Lord is everywhere and HE sees us everywhere , yet we forget this and sin so we think HE[ BRAMHAN VISHNU ] is not there and we commit Bramhahatya on a daily basis .
Thus we are all sinners . Thus we say
aparaadh sahasraani kriyanteaharnisham maya|
taani sarvani me dev kshamasva purushottam ||
Hey Purushottam , ! day and night I have been doing thousands of sins kindly forgive them all !!
WHen we ask with remorse we must remember HOW LORD has saved others from hienous crimes and its sins .
Bramhins are the carriers of Bramha vidya they are the custodians of the DHARMA. Killing such a bramhin or insulting him is known as Bramha hatya . This sin has been done on a largest scale BY SHIVA .
BRAMHA is the presiding diety and chief among the BRAMHINS . SHIVA cuts down his fifth head . Ambhrani sukta says that even after such a grave crime SHIVA was exonerated by VISHNU and he did not suffer much on account of it and was forgiven .
Bhrigu rishi kicked VISHNU who is all pervading bramha . Such a sin was also forgiven by the LORD and Bhrigu got the grace of LORD .
Tvastra had the bramhin sons by name VISHWAROOPA and Vrutrasura , Indra killed them and BRAHAHATYA engulfed was mitigated by the LORD and DEVENDRA regained his place in the heavens .
Sagar and his sons insulted LORD KAPIL the BRAMHIN , yet LORD brought the GANGA to earth to mitigate their sins and gave then MOKSHA .
Parikshit insulted SHaMIK rishi in samadhi by enroping a snake . FOR This BRAMHAHATYA of PARIKSHIT LORD graced him with BHAGAVAT through SHUKACHARYA and Parikshit attained MOKSHA .
Goddess LAXMI is ever present in GOLD , so stealing GOLD is sin towards GODDESS . THis sin was committed for the first time by BALI . BALI once stole the KIRIT [ crown ] of LORD NARAYANA sleeping in the KSHEERASAGAR [ AMUKTA STHANA ] . GARUDA chased BALI and grabbed it . BUT GARUDA placed it on the HEAD of KRISHNA in DWAPARA YUGA while HE was in GOMANTAKA PARVAT . THIS CROWN fitted exactly the head of KRISHNA establishing that there is no differenece between LORD NARAYANA and KRISHNA .
BALI INDIRECTLY BECAME THE INSTRUMENT FOR SUCH A EXHIBITION OF QUALITY OF NARAYANA . BALI infact got punya rather than sin for his acts , such is the magnanimity of LORD towards his devotees .
Shatdahnva and Kritavarma alongwith these two Akrur participated in the filching of SYAMANTAK MANI . Akrur hid the mani in his clothes from Krishna . LORD forgave him and also allowed him to keep the ruby .
Sons of KUBERA , Nalkubar and Manigreeva , after consuming alcohol , nakedly were sporting in ganga with many women .NARADA cursed them to be ARJUNa trees . Krishna mitigated their sins and curse by his touch .
All yadavas drank mayreyak alcohol and in ensuing brawl killed themselves but their act resulted in the Krishna leaving for paramdham thus giving them more punya .
Moon chandra indulged with wife of his preceptor BRAHASPATI and had to suffer kushta [ leprosy] . BUT LORD saved him from hell BY TAKING BIRTH IN HIS LINEAGE OF CHANDRAVANSHA as KRISHNA . KRISHNA brought enormous fame to the Lineage of CHANDRA and therby as his forefather [ mane ] moon was exonerated .
PATAKI SANYOG :
When we befriend pataki sinner we share his sins . RAVAN KUMBAKARNA ,SHISHUPALA DANTAVAKTRA , HIRANYAKSHA HIRANYAKASHIPU , NALKUBAR manigreeva all these were residing in the same body alongwith the demons , JAY VIJAY , DHUNI CHAMU ,
SIMILARLY PUTANA had both URVASHI and TATAKI . Karna had SURYA and DAMBODHBHAV LORD KRISHNA SAVED ALL THESE good souls even when they were in pataki sanyog ,
KAnsa minister AKRUR or his sairandhri TRIVAKRA everyone were freed from sins by LORD KRISHNA .
THUS when MAHAPATAKAS can be forgiven by LORD KRISHNA by bringing pashchattap among the devotees and through Prayashchitta , then small PATAKAS or UPAPATAKAS wil also be destroyed by LORD . HE forgave
- SHringi for giving curse to a sane KING PARIKSHIT
- KALIYA snake for biting him in YAMUNA
- AJAMILA BRAMHIN for veshya gaman
- GANDHARI for cursing KRISHNA to exterminate yadava lineage
- KING SATRAJIT for false allegation of SYAMANTAKMANI apahaar .
Thus LORD forgives when devotee does prayaschitta through his samsmaranam by meditating all these events of HARI and paschattap and homa japa dana etc .
. Krichcha is the best form of PRAYASCHITTA . ALL such prayaschitta should start from dwadashi tithi.